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Online appendix to Why and How Electoral Systems Matter in Autocracies (Australian Journal of Political Science, doi: 10.1080/10361146.2016.1182617)

 

Online appendix A. Countries, elections and data sources.

 

Abbreviations:

CLEA: Ken Kollman, Allen Hicken, Daniele Caramani, David Backer, and David Lublin, Constituency-Level Election Archive (produced and distributed by the Centre for Political Studies of the University of Michigan), http://www.electiondataarchive.org;

EEDB: Norwegian Social Science Data Services, European Election Database, http://www.nsd.uib.no/european_election_database;

EP: David Lublin, Election Passport, http://www.electionpassport.com.

 

Country

Year of elections

Data source

Albania

2013

EP

Algeria

2007

http://www.rnd-dz.com/OneAdminSuite/_files/File/Repartition%20par%20Wilaya.pdf

Andorra

2009

EP

Angola

2012

EP

Anguilla

2010

EP

Antigua and Barbuda

2009

EP

Argentina

2007

http://www.mininterior.gov.ar/asuntos_politicos_y_alectorales/dine/infogral/RESULTADOS%20HISTORICOS/2007.pdf and http://web.archive.org/web/20090329105734/http://www.argentinaelections.com/2006/12/resultados_2007.php

Armenia

2012

http://www.elections.am/

Aruba

2009

EP

Australia

2007

http://results.aec.gov.au

Austria

2008

http://www.bmi.gv.at

Azerbaijan

2010

EP

Bahamas

2012

EP

Bangladesh

2008

CLEA

Barbados

2013

EP

Belgium

2010

http://polling2010.belgium.be

Belize

2012

http://www.elections.gov.bz/modules/wfdownloads/singlefile.php?cid=14&lid=545

Benin

2011

EP

Bermuda

2012

EP

Bhutan

2013

EP

Bolivia

2005

CLEA

Bosnia and Herzegovina

2006

http://web.archive.org/web/20070212220926/http://www.izbori.ba/rezultati/parlament_bih/index.htm

Botswana

2009

EP

Brazil

2010

http://www.tse.jus.br

British Virgin Islands

2011

EP

Bulgaria

2014

http://results.cik.bg/pi2014/rezultati/index.html

Burkina Faso

2012

http://www.ceni.bf/

Burundi

2010

http://www.burunditransparence.org/final-report-burundi-2010_fr.pdf

Cabo Verde

2011

http://africanelections.tripod.com/cv_detail.html#2011_National_Assembly_Election

Cambodia

2013

http://www.opendevelopmentcambodia.net/election/election-data/

Cameroon

2013

http://www.elecam.cm/uploads/media/RAPPORT_LEGISLATIVES_MUNICIPALES_2013_Ang.pdf

Canada

2008

CLEA

Cayman Islands

2009

EP

Central African Republic

2011

http://www.journal-des-elections.net/docs/Resultats_Legislatives_republique_centrafricaine_2011.pdf

Chad

2011

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/c/chad

Chile

2009

EP

Colombia

2010

CLEA

Comoros

2015

http://www.cenicomores.km (downloadable files with names referring to the three islands, http://www.cenicomores.km/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Anjouan.pdf, etc.)

Congo (Kinshasa)

2011

http://www.ceni.gouv.cd (downloadable files with names referring to electoral constituencies, http://www.ceni.gouv.cd/deputes/befale.pdf, etc.)

Cook Islands

2014

http://www.mfem.gov.ck/

Costa Rica

2010

EP

Côte d'Ivoire

2011

http://www.ceici.org/elections/ci/edan2013.pdf

Croatia

2007

CLEA

Curaçao

2012

EP

Cyprus

2011

http://results.elections.moi.gov.cy/English/PARLIAMENTARY_ELECTIONS_2011/

Czech Republic

2010

EEDB

Denmark

2011

http://www.dst.dk

Djibouti

2013

http://www.presidence.dj/jo/2013/proclamation2013.php

Dominica

2014

http://electoraloffice.gov.dm/

Dominican Republic

2010

EP

Ecuador

2006

http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/16319

Egypt

2011

http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/3331/egyptian-elections_preliminary-results_updated-

El Salvador

2012

EP

Equatorial Guinea

1993

CLEA

Estonia

2003

CLEA

Ethiopia

2010

http://web.archive.org/web/20101013002020/http://www.electionethiopia.org/am/2010-06-29-07-34-37.html

Faroe Islands

2004

EP

Fiji

2006

http://press.anu.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/app021.pdf

Finland

2011

http://www.vaalit.fi/en/index.html

France

2002

CLEA

French Polynesia

2013

http://www.polynesie-francaise.pref.gouv.fr/DOSSIERS/Elections/Election-des-representants-a-l-Assemblee-de-la-PF-2013/RESULTATS-DEFINITIFS-DU-1er-TOUR-DE-L-ELECTION-DES-REPRESENTANTS-A-L-ASSEMBLEE-DE-LA-POLYNESIE-FRANCAISE

Gambia

2012

http://www.iec.gm/

Georgia

2012

http://results2012.cec.gov.ge/

Germany

2009

http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de

Ghana

2008

EP

Greece

2009

EEDB

Greenland

2013

EP

Grenada

2008

EP

Guatemala

2007

EP

Guinea

2013

EP

Guinea-Bissau

2014

http://www.cne-guinebissau.org/

Guyana

2006

CLEA

Haiti

2006

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/h/haiti/

Honduras

2009

EP

Hong Kong

2004

http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr04-05/english/panels/ca/papers/ca1220-eprt-e-scan.pdf

Hungary

2014

http://valasztas.hu/hu/ogyv2014/861/861_0_index.html

Iceland

2009

EEDB

India

2004

CLEA

Indonesia

2004

http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Election%20Results%20Evaluation%20of/2005/729/DPR_Results_Announced_by_KPU_04%2005%2005_locked.xls

Iraq

2005.1

http://web.archive.org/web/20071001104003/http://www.ieciraq.org/Arabic/Frameset_Arabic.php

Ireland

2007

http://electionsireland.org

Israel

2015

http://www.votes20.gov.il/

Italy

2008

http://elezionistorico.interno.it

Jamaica

2011

EP

Japan

2009

http://www.soumu.go.jp/senkyo/senkyo_s/data/shugiin45/index.html

Kazakhstan

2012

http://new.inform.kz/kaz/article/2434025

Kenya

2013

EP

Kosovo

2010

EP

Kyrgyzstan

2010

Professor Eugene Huskey, personal communication with the author

Latvia

2011

http://www.velesanas2011.cvk.lv/report-results-5.html

Lesotho

2012

EP

Liberia

2011

EP

Libya

2012

http://web.archive.org/web/20130128085201/http://elections2012.ly/home/entity_results/?lang=ar

Liechtenstein

2009

http://www.landtagswahlen.li

Lithuania

2008

EEDB and http://paslaugos.vrk.lt/2008_seimo_rinkimai/output_en/rezultatai_vienmand_apygardose/rezultatai_vienmanate_apygarda6916aktyvumasdesc1turas.html

Luxembourg

2009

http://www.electionresources.org/lu/data

Macedonia

2008

EEDB

Madagascar

2013

http://www.hcc.gov.mg/elections/legislatives2013/deputes

Malawi

2014

http://www.mec.org.mw/Portals/0/Parliament%20results.pdf

Malaysia

2013

EP

Maldives

2014

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/m/maldives/maldives20141.txt

Mali

2013

http://www.abamako.com/elections/legislatives/2013/election/cercle.asp?R=1&C=1#gsc.tab=0

Malta

2008

http://www.um.edu.mt/projects/maltaelections

Mauritania

2013

http://web.archive.org/web/20131221102415/http://www.ceni.mr/spip.php?page=article&id_article=79

Mauritius

2010

http://www1.govmu.org/documents/resultsNAE2010.pdf

Mexico

2006

http://www.ife.org.mx

Moldova

2010

http://www.cec.md/index.php?pag=page&id=1162&l=ro

Mongolia

2008

https://tsogtbaatar.wordpress.com/2008/07/14/%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB-%D1%83%D0%BB%D1%81%D1%8B%D0%BD-%D0%B8%D1%85-%D1%85%D1%83%D1%80%D0%BB%D1%8B%D0%BD-2008-%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%8B-%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B3%D1%83%D1%83%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B9/

Montenegro

2009

http://www.rik.co.me/izbori%202009/aktuelnosti_2009.html

Montserrat

2014

EP

Morocco

2002

https://www.uam.es/otroscentros/TEIM/observatorio/Marruecos/Resultado_elecciones_legislativas_Marruecos_2002.xls

Mozambique

2009

http://www.content.eisa.org.za/old-page/mozambique-2009-assembly-republic-election-results-constituency

Myanmar

2010

http://myanmarelections.org/

Nagorno-Karabakh

2005

http://www.elections.nkr.am/eng/vibory05.htm and http://web.archive.org/web/20051125173759/http://www.elections.nkr.am/eng/vibory05.htm

Namibia

2014

http://www.ippr.org.na/sites/default/files/ElectionWatch%2011e.pdf

Nepal

2008

CLEA and http://www.election.gov.np/reports/CAResults/reportBody.php?selectedMenu1=PR%20Party%20In%20District%20Wise

Netherlands

2010

EEDB

New Caledonia

2004

http://www.congres.nc/wp-content/uploads/files/pdf/318_resultats_province_2004.pdf

New Zealand

2008

http://www.electionresults.govt.nz

Nicaragua

2006

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/n/nicaragua/nicaragua20062.txt

Niger

2004

http://cour-constitutionnelle-niger.org/documents/arrets/matiere_electorale/2004/

Nigeria

2011

http://www.inecnigeria.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HOUSE-OF-REPS-2011.pdf

Northern Cyprus

2013

http://www.kktcsecim.com/kktc-2013-milletvekilligi-erken-genel-secim-sonuclari/

Northern Mariana Islands

2009

http://www.mvariety.com/cnmi/cnmi-news/local/21583-voters-ok-initiatives

Norway

2009

EEDB

Pakistan

2013

http://ecp.gov.pk/NA-Pakistan(Detail).pdf

Palestinian National Authority

2006

http://www.elections.ps

Panama

2009

http://www.tribunal-electoral.gob.pa/html/index.php?id=241

Papua New Guinea

2002

http://web.archive.org/web/20080430221917/http://www.duke.edu/~mms15

Paraguay

2008

http://www.tsje.gov.py

Peru

2011

http://www.web.onpe.gob.pe/

Philippines

2007

CLEA

Poland

2011

EEDB

Portugal

2009

http://eleicoes.cne.pt/

Puerto Rico

2008

http://eleccionespuertorico.org/home_en.html

Romania

2004

EEDB

Russia

2003

http://gd2003.cikrf.ru/

Rwanda

2008

http://www.nec.gov.rw/uploads/media/Amatora_y_abadepite_2008.pdf

St. Barthélemy

2012

http://elections2012.memoirestbarth.com/territoriales/saint-barthelemy/archives-resultats-scrutin

St. Kitts and Nevis

2010

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/s/stkitts/stkitts2010.txt

St. Lucia

2011

EP

St. MartinFD

2012

http://www.saint-barth-saint-martin.pref.gouv.fr/Vos-demarches-en-ligne/Elections/Territoriales-de-Saint-Martin/Elections-territoriales-de-mars-2012

St. Pierre and Miquelon

2012

http://www.saintpierreetmiquelon.net/18032012-elections-territoriales/

St. Vincent and Grenadines

2010

EP

Samoa

2011

EP

San Marino

2008

http://www.elezioni.sm/

São Tomé and Príncipe

1994

Dieter Nohlen, Bernard Thibaut, and Michael Krennerich (1999) Elections in Africa: A Data Handbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Senegal

2012

http://www.dakaractu.com/Senegal-Legislatives-2012-Tableau-des-Resultats-Scrutin-Departemental-et-Scrution-Proportionnel-DOCUMENT-PDF_a27891.html

Serbia

2012

http://www.rik.parlament.gov.rs/

Seychelles

2007

http://www.ecs.sc/pages/statistics/legislative/vcdp.aspx

Sierra Leone

2012

http://www.nec-sierraleone.org/index_files/Parliamentary_OMP_PCMP%20Result%202012.pdf

Singapore

2011

http://www.eld.gov.sg/elections_results2011.html

Sint Maarten

2010

EP

Slovakia

2006

EEDB

Slovenia

2008

EEDB

Somaliland

2005

http://web.archive.org/web/20061002221334/http://www.iri.org/africa/somaliland/pdfs/Somaliland2005ParliamentaryElections.pdf

South Africa

2014

http://www.elections.org.za/

South Korea

2012

http://info.nec.go.kr

South Ossetia

2009

http://osgolos.ru/ru/news/id/83/

Spain

2004

EEDB

Sri Lanka

2010

CLEA

Sudan

2010

http://nec.org.sd (downloadable files with names from http://nec.org.sd/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/result-001.pdf to -024.pdf)

Suriname

2010

http://surinaamseverkiezingen.azurewebsites.net/

Sweden

2010

http://www.val.se

Switzerland

2011

http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/17/02.html

Taiwan

2008

http://web.cec.gov.tw

Tajikistan

2000

http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/tajikistan/15984?download=true

Tanzania

2010

http://nec.go.tz/index.php?modules=election_results_2010&sub=&etype=2&region=27&district=&button2=Submit

Thailand

2011

http://www.ect.go.th/th/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/mp_54.pdf

Timor Leste

2007

http://www.etan.org/etanpdf/2007/ACTA%2520FINAL%2520APURAMENTU%2520DISTRITU.pdf

Togo

2013

EP

Trinidad and Tobago

2010

EP

Tunisia

2011

EP

Turkey

2011

http://secim.haberler.com/2011

Turks and Caicos

2007

EP

Uganda

2011

http://www.ec.or.ug/eresults.php

Ukraine

2012

EP and http://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vnd2012/WP320?PT001F01=900&pPlace=1

United Kingdom

2010

http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk

United States

2012

CLEA

United States Virgin Islands

2014

http://www.vivote.gov/Election%202014/GEreports/Territory%20wide.HTM

Uruguay

2009

http://elecciones.corteelectoral.gub.uy

Vanuatu

2012

http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/v/vanuatu/vanuatu2012.txt

Venezuela

2010

EP

Zambia

2011

EP

Zimbabwe

2008

EP

 

Online appendix B. Models without dependencies and states lacking full international recognition

 

Table 1A. Factors of party system nationalisation in democracies (n = 116; 107 country clusters)

 

Model 1

Model 2

 

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Logged average district magnitude

0.039***

0.013

0.035**

0.018

Legal threshold of representation

0.012***

0.004

0.013***

0.004

Ethno-linguistic fractionalisation

-0.092**

0.047

-0.172***

0.066

Federalism

-0.093**

0.044

-0.135***

0.053

Level of authoritarianism

-0.053***

0.013

-0.060***

0.017

Population size

-0.00012**

0.00006

-0.00011

0.00008

Effective number of parties

-0.025***

0.003

-

-

Constant

0.999***

0.034

0.95***

0.041

R-squared

0.68

0.40

 

***significant at 0.01 level; **significant at 0.05 level; *significant at 0.1 level.

Sources: See Online appendix A.

 

 

Table 2A. Factors of party system nationalisation in authoritarian regimes (n = 59; 52 country clusters)

 

Model 1

Model 2

 

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Logged average district magnitude

0.100***

0.029

0.107***

0.033

Legal threshold of representation

0.020**

0.009

0.026***

0.009

Ethno-linguistic fractionalisation

-0.058

0.082

-0.060

0.082

Federalism

-0.056

0.04

-0.037

0.056

Level of authoritarianism

0.004

0.018

-0.002

0.021

Population size

0.00004

0.00031

-0.00021

0.00045

Effective number of parties

-0.015***

0.004

-

-

Constant

0.635***

0.112

0.592***

0.130

R-squared

0.61

0.39

 

***significant at 0.01 level; **significant at 0.05 level; *significant at 0.1 level.

Sources: See Online appendix A.

 

 

 

Table 3A. Factors of party system nationalisation in democracies and authoritarian regimes (n = 175; 159 country clusters)

 

Model 1

Model 2

 

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Logged average district magnitude

0.046***

0.016

0.046***

0.020

Legal threshold of representation

0.011***

0.004

0.012**

0.004

Ethno-linguistic fractionalisation

-0.120***

0.044

-0.190**

0.056

Federalism

-0.067**

0.032

-0.080***

0.041

Authoritarianism dummy

-0.148***

0.033

-0.142***

0.042

Population size

-0.00013**

0.00006

-0.00016**

0.00007

Logged average district magnitude * Authoritarianism

0.046

0.030

0.039

0.034

Legal threshold of representation * Authoritarianism

0.005

0.008

0.010

0.008

Effective number of parties

-0.019***

0.004

-

-

Constant

0.883***

0.034

0.835***

0.038

R-squared

0.63

0.41

 

***significant at 0.01 level; **significant at 0.05 level; *significant at 0.1 level.

Sources: See Online appendix A.

Online appendix C. Expanded dataset models

 

Table 4A. Factors of party system nationalisation in democracies (n = 236; 139 country clusters)

 

Model 1

Model 2

 

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Logged average district magnitude

0.042***

0.011

0.031**

0.014

Legal threshold of representation

0.010***

0.003

0.011***

0.003

Ethno-linguistic fractionalisation

-0.118***

0.042

-0.186***

0.055

Federalism

-0.063

0.042

-0.118**

0.05

Level of authoritarianism

-0.057***

0.010

-0.063***

0.014

Population size

0

0

0

0

Effective number of parties

-0.026***

0.003***

-

-

Constant

1.015***

0.029***

0.967***

0.034

R-squared

0.61

0.39

 

***significant at 0.01 level; **significant at 0.05 level; *significant at 0.1 level.

Sources: See Online appendix A and the list of additional data sources below.

 

 

Table 5A. Factors of party system nationalisation in authoritarian regimes (n = 89; 63 country clusters)

 

Model 1

Model 2

 

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Unstandardised coefficients

Cluster robust standard errors

Logged average district magnitude

0.106***

0.029

0.113***

0.033

Legal threshold of representation

0.017**

0.008

0.020**

0.009

Ethno-linguistic fractionalisation

-0.004

0.063

-0.014

0.08

Federalism

-0.062

0.038

-0.052

0.053

Level of authoritarianism

-0.006

0.013

-0.006

0.016

Population size

0

0

0

0

Effective number of parties

-0.018***

0.005

-

-

Constant

0.700***

0.082

0.625***

0.098

R-squared

0.58

0.35

 

***significant at 0.01 level; **significant at 0.05 level; *significant at 0.1 level.

Sources: See Online appendix A and the list of additional data sources below.

 

 

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